Whether it is new, reformed or expanded, the laboratory decoration is not only to choose reasonable instruments and equipment, but also to consider the overall process, layout, safety facilities, ventilation, air purification, safety measures, power supply, water supply, gas supply, environmental protection and energy saving infrastructure and basic conditions of the laboratory. Therefore, the construction of the laboratory is a complex system engineering. In modern laboratories, advanced instruments and equipments and well-functioned laboratories are the necessary conditions to improve the level of modern science and technology and promote the growth of scientific research achievements. Safety, efficiency and comfort are the three main elements of ideal experimental environment, and also the purpose of laboratory design.
First, the basic process of the whole construction of the laboratory. Laboratory decoration design work is generally divided into three stages: sketch design, preliminary design and construction drawing design.
1. Sketch design. According to the task and basic requirements of laboratory construction, the architectural scheme design is carried out on the basis of preliminary preparatory work. Generally, the design scheme meets the function of the laboratory, requires aesthetic feeling in appearance, and conforms to the urban construction plan. The design scheme has been proved, examined and compared by experts, and a satisfactory design scheme has been obtained by putting forward an implementation scheme or making further modifications taking into account the advantages of several schemes. In this link, the laboratory must provide more mature functional requirements after full consideration. What is taboo is to modify while designing, especially the change of the function of the design laboratory. From the point of view of lab staff, many changes are only changes in a room or the location of a faucet. For designers, it is possible to design changes in many majors and hundreds of drawings. For the constructors, it is possible to make pipelines from new laying, wall removal and so on, which will directly bring losses in labor, time, materials and so on. The layout of laboratory functions must be carefully planned.
2. Preliminary design. On the basis of the scheme design, the preliminary design of the concrete implementation scheme is the main basis for the construction drawing design. Its contents mainly include design basis, design conception, general plan, scheme design of main construction projects, consumption of main materials, process design, main equipment modelling, three wastes treatment, life organization and labor assignment, earthquake-resistant civil air defense of relevant technical and economic indicators, construction sequence and duration and general budget estimate. In this link, the laboratory should pay attention to whether some key points are in or not. The design drawings are embodied, such as the distribution capacity of each room, the treatment of grounding alone together, the design of ventilation pipelines, etc.
3. Construction drawing design. According to the approved preliminary design documents, the sizes and local detailed design of the relevant professional projects are given in detail to guide the site construction, installation and equipment material preparation, and the final stage design of the detailed budget of the project is made accordingly. The main contents include: general plane, building and structure. The design of water supply and drainage, electrical, heating and ventilation systems and other related professional equipment systems accurately and detailedly determines their location, net distance, coordinate elevation, structural form, detailed drawings of joints, material usage, size, slope direction, material type, equipment specifications or selected standard drawing sample number, technical requirements for construction and installation, and inspection methods for special parts, etc.
Second, the main contents of the overall renovation of the laboratory. This part generally does not need to be considered by laboratory staff, because the laboratory is usually subordinate to an organ, enterprise or institution from the organizational structure, there will be a special infrastructure department to take charge of this matter, from the function, the laboratory is for a department, industry management or enterprise production services. However, laboratory personnel should be aware of the relevant content, which helps to participate more reasonably in the preparation of laboratory construction planning in the design of laboratory function planning, including:
1. The items that need to be considered in the overall renovation of the laboratory. The technological layout and technological process of all kinds of experimental buildings, the relationship between each building in the overall layout, the solution of living area and the centralization of plane combination may be considered. The number of stories for the construction of experimental buildings, the arrangement of main instruments and equipment, the location of test-bed and ventilation cabinet, and the layout principle of engineering pipeline network (such as open or hidden pipe, vertical pipe network or horizontal pipe network), Ling In order to meet the requirement of activity, we must fully consider the reserved space for development, environmental protection and detailed technical measures in the treatment of public hazards.
2. Determine the technical treatment measures of construction units (such as a research institute, a college, a factory or a laboratory), construction projects (such as an experimental building or a research building), constructive nature (new construction, expansion or reconstruction), construction sites and land use, the specific location of the project, and the treatment of public hazards (waste gas, wastewater, waste, noise, radiation, vibration, etc.).
3. Mutual communication and coordination with design and construction supervision units should be considered. Among them, the design unit is an important hub connecting the user and the construction unit. It is mainly responsible for embodying the laboratory building function and the laboratory requirements on the drawings. As the construction design unit of the laboratory, it must fully communicate with the laboratory staff, summarize the needs of the laboratory, and then decompose them into design inputs of different specialties to ensure that the design is complete and the construction is completed. Units maintain close contact, further deepen the design, form construction design scheme, ensure the effective implementation of the design scheme.
4. Another important step is to collect relevant information, including local meteorological, hydrological and geological data, power supply, water source, drainage and other public facilities, pipelines, regional industrial conditions, whether there are harmful gases, explosions and noise, and detailed information of earthquakes. For the reconstruction of old buildings, it is more important to collect and analyze the basic information of existing buildings. In principle, there should not be much change in the structure of old buildings. For some existing infrastructure of old buildings, timely protection and marking can be continued in the construction process, such as separate ground lines.